The Forty-five Rebellion: In 1746, an English armyunder William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, defeated a Scottish force under CharlesEdward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) at the Battle of Culloden, ending theJacobite effort to restore the Stuarts to England’s throne. The battle, whichlasted only 40 minutes, resulted in bitter defeat for the heavily outnumbered Jacobites. Some 1,000 of the Young Pretender’s army of5,000 weak and starving Highlanders were killed by the 9,000 Redcoats, who lostonly 50 men. The devastating slaughter of the Jacobites was the result of theopening British cannonade and subsequent tactics of the Redcoats during theattack of the Highlanders, when each British soldier, instead of attacking theHighlander directly in front of him, bayoneted the exposed side of the man tohis right. The Highlanders finally broke and fled, and some 1,000 more werekilled in subsequent weeks of hounding by British troops. Hunted by troops andspies, Prince Charles wandered over Scotland for five months before escaping toFrance and final exile.
“The Young Pretender”, Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, pretender to the English throne (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
In 1789, President-elect George Washington left his home at Mount Vernon,Virginia, heading for his inauguration in New York City.
Pastry War In 1838, French forces occupied the Mexican city of Veracruz.The war was a brief and minor conflict between
France, arising from the claim of a French pastry cook living in Tacubaya, near Mexico City, that some Mexican army officers had damaged his restaurant. A number of foreign powers had pressed the Mexican government without success to pay for losses that some of their nationals claimed they had suffered during several years of civil disturbances. France decided to back up its demand for 600,000 pesos by sending a fleet to Veracruz,the principal Mexican port on the Gulf of Mexico. After bombarding the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, situated on a reef outside the harbor, and occupying the city, the French won a guarantee of payment through the good offices of Great Britain and withdrew their fleet on March 9, 1839. The most important domestic result of the conflict was the further enhancement of the prestige and political influence of the dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna, who had assumed command of the Mexican army and lost a leg in the fighting.
Daguerreotype of Antonio López de Santa Anna (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Bolshevik Revolution: In 1917, Vladimir Ilich Lenin ended his 17-year exile and returned to Russia to form a provisional government.
World War II
: In 1945, US troops occupied Nürnberg, Germany. Only a few historic buildings survived the
massive bomb damage wrought toward the end of World War II, although some have been restored. The most important are the Gothic churches of St. Sebald and St.Lorenz and, adjoining the marketplace, the Frauen kirche (Church of Our Lady).The Heilig Geist Spital (Hospital Church of the Holy Ghost), rising above the Pegnitz, is now a home for the elderly. In addition, there are the Mauthalle(customs house) on the Königstrasse, the Weinstadel (wine storage house), the Renaissance city hall, the Schöne Brunnen (a fountain), the Fembohaus (museum of the old city), and, towering above them all, the imperial castle (which now includes a museum on the castle’s history) and its stables and granary, now a youth hostel.
Nazi Germany Road Map (Northwest) (Photo credit: jczart)
In 1948, 16 European countries formed the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (later the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in order to restore the economy of Europe after World War II.Current members include
United Kingdom, and the
United States, three of which are still semi-solvent.
“Politics is the art of looking for trouble, finding it everywhere, diagnosing it incorrectly, and applying the wrong remedies.”