In 1653, England’s Rump Parliament was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell and later replaced by the nominated Barebones Parliament, which was dissolved in the same year, leading to the declaration of the Protectorate.
In 1808, Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who became Napoleon III, future president of the Second Republic (1850–1852) and emperor of France (1852–1870), was born in Paris. He was the third son of Napoleon I’s brother Louis Bonaparte, who was king of Holland from 1806 to 1810, and his wife, Hortense de Beauharnais Bonaparte, stepdaughter of Napoleon
In 1861, US Army Colonel Robert Edward Lee resigned his commission. Lee was back at his command in Texas when on February 1, 1861, Texas became the seventh Southern state to secede, and, with the rest of the US Army forces, he was ordered out of the state. Without a command, he returned to Arlington to wait to see what Virginia would do. On April 18 he was called to Washington and offered command of a new army being formed to force the seceded states back into the Union. Lee, while he opposed secession, also opposed war, and “could take no part in an invasion of the Southern states.” Meanwhile, President Lincoln called on Virginia to furnish troops for the invasion. A Virginia convention, which had previously voted 2 to 1 against secession, now voted 2 to 1 against furnishing troops for an invasion and to secede, and Lee resigned from the army in which he had served for 36 years to offer his services to the “defense of [his] native state.”
In 1919, in an ongoing dispute over the possession of Vilnius, Polish forces drove out Russia’s Red Army—which had previously ousted the newly established Lithuanian government—and occupied the city. Although the new Lithuanian government established itself at Vilnius in late 1918, it evacuated the city when Soviet forces moved in on January 5, 1919. A few months later Polish forces drove the Red Army out of Vilnius and occupied it themselves. The Lithuanians rejected the demands of the Polish chief of state, Józef Piłsudski, for union with Poland, and hostilities were avoided only by the Allies’ creation of a demarcation line (the Foch Line) to separate the armies of the two countries; Vilnius was left on the Polish side of the line.
In 1924, Turkey’s Grand National Assembly voted to adopt a full republican constitution, with General Mustafa Kemal, who had first proclaimed the Turkish republic about six months earlier, becoming the first president of the republic.
“Politics is the art of looking for trouble, finding it everywhere, diagnosing it incorrectly, and applying the wrong remedies.”