Roger Mickelson’s History Today 12/13/13
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 Happy Friday the 13th    
                                                    
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In 1545, the Council of Trent, the 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, which helped revitalize the church in many parts of Europe after the Protestant Reformation, opened in Trent, Italy. When an emotional crisis developed as the council opened (some urging immediate reform and others urging clarification of Catholic doctrines), a compromise was reached whereby both topics were to be treated simultaneously. The council then laid the groundwork for future declarations.
The Council of Trent

The Council of Trent (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1642, Dutch navigator Abel Tasman sighted South Island, New Zealand, and later, mistaking the strait north of the island for a bay, believed he had found the west coast of a hypothetical southern continent.

 

Abel Tasman, detail of portrait Македонски: Де...

Abel Tasman, detail of portrait Македонски: Детаљ од портрет на холандскиот морепловец Абел Тасман. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

American Civil War:    In 1862, the Battle of Fredericksburg, a bloody engagement in which Confederate troops were led to victory by General Robert Edward Lee over the Union forces of General Ambrose Everett Burnside, was waged. General Burnside, newly appointed commander of the Northern forces, planned to cross the Rappahannock River with an army of more than 120,000 troops and advance on the Southern capital at Richmond. Confederate General Lee countered by taking a strong position on high ground behind Fredericksburg with a force of about 78,000. The attack on December 13 proved a complete failure, and Burnside’s casualties totaled more than 12,500, compared to only about 5,000 for the carefully entrenched Confederates. General Lee is said to have remarked, “It is well that war is so terrible, or we should grow too fond of it.”
        General Burnside provided the “model” for the word sideburns, grooming very long hair down the sides of his face.
Ambrose Everett Burnside

Ambrose Everett Burnside (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1921, the Four-Power Pact was signed during the Washington Conference by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and France, stipulating that all the signatories would be consulted in the event of a controversy between two of them over “any Pacific question.”

 

World War II:    In 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army seized Nanjing, China, during the Sino-Japanese War, leading to the Nanjing Massacre. The number of Chinese killed in the massacre has been subject to much debate, with most estimates ranging from 100,000 to more than 300,000. The destruction of Nanjing—which had been the capital of the Nationalist Chinese from 1928 to 1937—was ordered by Matsui Iwane, commanding general of the Central China Front Army that captured the city. Over the next several weeks, Japanese soldiers carried out Matsui’s orders, perpetrating numerous mass executions and tens of thousands of rapes. The army looted and burned the surrounding towns and the city, destroying more than a third of the buildings.

 

松井石根,Iwane Matui,Matui Iwane

松井石根,Iwane Matui,Matui Iwane (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

World War IV:    In 2003, US forces captured Iraqi leader Ṣaddām Ḥussein al-Tikrītī who had been hiding in a hole under a farmhouse in Adwar, Iraq, near his hometown of Tikrit. Although he was armed, Ṣaddām surrendered to U.S. soldiers without firing a shot.

Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“Friends come and go; enemies accumulate.”
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