In 1556, Thomas Cranmer, the first Protestant archbishop of Canterbury, was burned at the stake for violating heresy laws revised under the Roman Catholic queen Mary I, known as Bloody Mary. Cranmer’s trial for treason was a pretext; the queen and her advisers meant to destroy him for his long-standing offense in promoting Protestantism. They had to wait until they could get Parliament to repeal the acts of Henry VIII and Edward VI and to reintroduce the laws that enabled the secular arm to burn heretics. With Ridley and Hugh Latimer, a Protestant who had formerly been bishop of Worcester, Cranmer in March 1554 was removed to Oxford, where the Counter-Reformation felt safer than in Cranmer’s own university. Late in that year the heresy laws were revived, and in September 1555, after enfeebling imprisonment, Cranmer was subjected to a long trial in which he stoutly defended himself. The foregone conclusion was arrived at after a variety of technical processes; on February 14, 1556, in a ceremony full of carefully designed humiliation, he was degraded from his episcopal and sacerdotal offices and handed over to the state.
In 1804, the “Code of Napoleon” (the French civil code) was adopted.
In 1907, US Marines arrived in Honduras to protect American citizens in the wake of political violence. President William Howard Taft sent the marines to protect American banana investments, which by this time had grown considerably, with three companies exploiting this Honduran product. All three made large capital outlays in the form of improved port facilities, railroads, workers’ settlements, and similar developments.
World War I: In 1918, the Second Battle of the Somme began. German General Erich Ludendorff believed that it was essential for Germany to use the troops freed from the Eastern Front by the collapse of Russia to achieve a victory on the Western Front in the spring of 1918, before American troops arrived in sufficient numbers to effectively reinforce the war-weary Allies. His first offensive was directed against the rather weak British armies north of the Somme River, between Arras and La Fère. The British trenches were shelled and gassed before a massive morning attack in dense fog, which took the British by surprise. Their first and second lines quickly fell, and by March 22 the shattered British 5th Army was in retreat and had lost contact with the French to the south.
In 1960, about 70 black African demonstrators were killed by police during a protest in Sharpeville, Gauteng province, against South Africa’s pass laws.
In 1965, American civil rights activists led by Martin Luther King, Jr, began a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
Regards, Roger Mickelson Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica. “There are no new sins; the old ones just get more publicity.”
And envy, gluttony, greed, lust, pride, sloth, and wrath comprise the “big seven.”