In 1461, King Henry VI of England was deposed by Yorkists and replaced by Edward IV. Henry was a pious and studious recluse whose incapacity for government was one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses, fought between the Houses of Lancaster and York for the English throne. The wars were named many years afterward from the supposed badges of the contending parties: the white rose of York and the red of Lancaster.
In 1681, William Penn secured from King Charles II of England the colonial province of Pennsylvania in North America, hoping to provide a refuge in the New World for Quakers and other persecuted people and to build an ideal Christian commonwealth.
In 1789, the United States Constitution went into effect as the governing law of the United States, the date having been established by Congress. The first Federal Congress tried to meet in New York City, but they didn’t have a quorum, so they adjourned until March 5.
In 1791, Vermont became the 14th State in the Union. Originally, Vermont was a disputed territory, with many conflicts between New York and New Hampshire concerning property and governance. In 1777, the Vermonters created an independent republic—first as New Connecticut, then as Vermont—and they remained independent until they joined the Union.
In 1804, Irish convicts rose up in the Castle Hill Rising, Australia’s first rebellion. The uprising began with the rebels’ seizure of the New South Wales convict station at Parramatta on March 4 and culminated in a clash between the rebels and government troops on the following day. The actual scene of this clash was Vinegar Hill (now called Rouse Hill), about 10 miles from Castle Hill.
In 1837, Chicago was incorporated as a city, with a population of about 4,200. Currently, as a gun-free city, that’s almost the number of victims of firearm shootings.
In 1913, the “buffalo” nickel officially went into circulation.
In 2012, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin won a decisive victory in Russia’s presidential elections, returning to the Kremlin in Moscow for another six year term.
Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“It’s easy being a humorist when you’ve got the whole government working for you.” Will Rogers