Fixing the date on which the Resurrection of Jesus was to be observed and celebrated triggered a major controversy in early Christianity in which an Eastern and a Western position can be distinguished. The dispute was not definitively resolved until the 8th century. In Asia Minor, Christians observed the day of the Crucifixion on the same day that Jews celebrated Passover, that is, on the 14th day of the first full moon of spring, 14 Nisan. The Resurrection, then, was observed two days later, on 16 Nisan, regardless of the day of the week. In the West, the Resurrection of Jesus was celebrated on the first day of the week, Sunday, when Jesus had risen from the dead. Consequently, Easter was always celebrated on the first Sunday after the 14th day of the month of Nisan. Increasingly, the churches opted for the Sunday celebration, and the Quartodecimans (“fourteenth day” proponents) remained a minority. The Council of Nicaea in 325 decreed that Easter should be observed on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox (March 21). Easter, therefore, can fall on any Sunday between March 22 and April 25. Eastern Orthodox churches use a slightly different calculation based on the Julian rather than the Gregorian calendar (which is 13 days ahead of the former), with the result that the Orthodox Easter celebration usually occurs later than that celebrated by Protestants and Roman Catholics. Moreover, the Orthodox tradition prohibits Easter from being celebrated before or at the same time as Passover.
In 1521, the first Roman Catholic mass in the Philippines was celebrated on the island of Limasawa.
In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry signed the Treaty of Kanagawa in Japan, ending that country’s period of seclusion. The treaty was signed as a result of pressure from Perry, who sailed into Tokyo Bay with a fleet of warships in July 1853 and demanded that the Japanese open their ports to US ships for supplies. Perry then left Japan in order to give the government a few months to consider its decision. When he returned in February 1854, the Japanese, aware that none of their armaments was a match for Perry’s warships, agreed to admit US ships to the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate and to accept a US consul at Shimoda.
In 1918, clocks in the United States were set one hour ahead as daylight saving time went into operation for the first time.
In 1933, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Emergency Conservation Work Act that created the Civilian Conservation Corps.
Regards, Roger Mickelson
“Commitment is what transforms a promise into reality.” Abraham Lincoln