Roger Mickelson’s Daily History 10/01/13

In 331 BC, Alexander the Pretty Good of Macedonia defeated Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela. Darius had the terrain of the prospective battlefield smoothed level so that his many chariots could operate with maximum effectiveness against the Macedonians. His total forces greatly outnumbered those of Alexander, whose forces amounted to about 40,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry. Alexander’s well-trained army faced Darius’ massive battle line and organized for attack, charging the left of the Persians’ line with archers, javelin throwers, and cavalry, while defending against Darius’ outflanking cavalry with reserve flank guards. A charge by Persian scythed chariots aimed at the centre of Alexander’s forces was defeated by Macedonian lightly armed soldiers. During the combat, so much of Darius’ cavalry on his left flank were drawn into the battle that they left the Persian infantry in the centre of the battle line exposed. Alexander and his personal cavalry immediately wheeled half left and penetrated this gap and then wheeled again to attack the Persians’ flank and rear. At this Darius took flight, and panic spread through his entire army, which began a headlong retreat while being cut down by the pursuing Greeks. The Macedonian victory spelled the end of the Persian empire founded by Cyrus II the Great and left Alexander the master of southwest Asia.
Relief inspired by a Charles Le Brun's paintin...

Relief inspired by a Charles Le Brun’s painting on the same subject. Image shows Darius’ flight. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1800, Napoleon induced a reluctant King Charles IV of Spain to cede Louisiana back to France.
American Civil War:    In 1861, the Confederate Navy captured the Union steamer Fanny in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina.
Spanish Civil War:    In 1936, Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (Francisco Franco) became head of the new Nationalist regime of Spain at the beginning of the civil war. The rebel government did not, however, gain complete control of the country for more than three years.
World War II:    In 1946, the verdict was handed down on 22 of the original 24 defendants in the Nürnberg trials, a series of trials held after the war in which the International Military Tribunal indicted and tried former Nazi leaders as war criminals. Robert Ley had committed suicide while in prison, and Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach‘s mental and physical condition prevented his being tried.) Three of the defendants were acquitted: Hjalmar Schacht, Franz von Papen, and Hans Fritzsche. Four were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from 10 to 20 years: Karl Dönitz, Baldur von Schirach, Albert Speer, and Konstantin von Neurath. Three were sentenced to life imprisonment: Rudolf Hess, Walther Funk, and Erich Raeder. Twelve of the defendants were sentenced to death by hanging. Ten of them—Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Alfred Rosenberg, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel, and Arthur Seyss-Inquart—were hanged on Oct. 16, 1946. Martin Bormann was tried and condemned to death in absentia, and Hermann Göring committed suicide before he could be executed.


List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust

List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

World War III:    In 1949, Mao Zedong, proclaimed the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in a speech in Beijing, with most of the Chinese mainland held by the communist People’s Liberation Army.
People's Liberation Army recruits training.

People’s Liberation Army recruits training. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1960, Nigeria gained its independence from Britain but remained a member of the Commonwealth.

Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“Choose a job [duty] you love, an you will never have to work a day in your life.”        Confucius
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