Roger Mickelson’s History Todat 1/1/2014
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        HAPPY NEW YEAR        
                                                           
The earliest known record of a New Year festival dates from about 2000 BCE in Mesopotamia, where in Babylonia the new year (Akitu) began with the new moon after the spring equinox (mid-March) and in Assyria with the new moon nearest the autumn equinox (mid-September). For the Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Persians the year began with the autumn equinox (September 21), and for the early Greeks it began with the winter solstice (December 21). On the Roman republican calendar the year began on March 1, but after 153 BCE the official date was January 1, which was continued in the Julian calendar of 46 BCE.
denarius of Julius Caesar; Spanish mint, 46-45...

denarius of Julius Caesar; Spanish mint, 46-45 BCE; smaller version Obverse: head of Venus wearing a diadem, with a tiny Cupid and an augur’s staff (lituus) in front; Reverse: Gallic military trophy with a captured Gaul on one side and a mourning female symbolizing Gallia, defeated, on the other. Berlin, Pergamon Museum. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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In 1785, the Daily Universal Register (present-day Times of London) published its first issue. The newspaper began as a 2 1/2-penny broadsheet whose main function was to publicize a system of typography in which Walter was then interested. It became The Times on January 1, 1788, publishing commercial news and notices, along with some scandal. The founder’s son, John Walter II, took over the newspaper in 1803. He expanded it from 4 pages to 12 large pages, and, by the time control of the paper passed to his son, John Walter III, in 1848, the foundations of The Times‘s reputation as Britain’s preeminent national journal and daily historical record had been laid.

 

The Daily Universal Register 1785 newspaper

The Daily Universal Register 1785 newspaper (Photo credit: sleepymyf)

In 1804, Haiti declared its independence from France.
American Civil War:    In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. With the secession of the Southern states and the consequent start of the Civil War, the continued tolerance of Southern slavery by Northerners seemed no longer to serve any constructive political purpose. Emancipation thus quickly changed from a distant possibility to an imminent and feasible eventuality. Lincoln had declared that he meant to save the Union as best he could—by preserving slavery, by destroying it, or by destroying part and preserving part. Just after the Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862) he issued his proclamation calling on the revolted states to return to their allegiance before the next year, otherwise their slaves would be declared free men. No state returned, and the threatened declaration was issued on January 1, 1863.

 

Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first rea...

Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation draft on July 22, 1862. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

World War II:    In 1942, 26 nations signed the Declaration of the United Nations that pledged them “not to make a separate armistice or peace” with any of the Axis nations.
English: UN logo for international stub.

English: UN logo for international stub. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

In 1959, Fidel Castro Ruz and his revolutionary followers overthrew Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar, who fled to the Dominican Republic as a refugee

General Fulgencio Batista seized power in a mi...

General Fulgencio Batista seized power in a military coup, postponed elections indefinitely and implemented right wing policies; he would widely be labelled a dictator and Castro would believe it necessary to oust him. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

In 1984, AT&T was divested of its 22 Bell System companies under terms of an anti-trust agreement.
    A week ago, AT&T hijacked my home phone number, so I now must rely on my mobile phone alone.
Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“War is political, human, and uncertain. All else is commentary.”
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