Roger Mickelson’s History Today 1/14/14

In 1526, the Treaty of Madrid was signed by the Habsburg emperor Charles V (Charles I of Spain) and his prisoner Francis I, king of France, who had been captured during the Battle of Pavia in February 1525 and held prisoner until the conclusion of the treaty, when he was allowed to return to France. In the treaty, which was never ratified, the king of France ceded his lands in Italy, Flanders, Artois, and Tournai as well as parts of France to Charles V and contracted the marriage of his sister to Charles. The final signing of the treaty occurred in Madrid, and Francis was released and allowed to return to France. On crossing the border, he announced his refusal to ratify the treaty and entered into the League of Cognac, the intent of which was to dethrone Charles V.


Portrait of Charles V (1500-1558) with a Baton

Portrait of Charles V (1500-1558) with a Baton (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

American Revolutionary War:    In 1784, the Continental Congress ratified the Peace of Paris (1783) with Great Britain, granting independence to the American colonies.
In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel ended hostilities between Denmark and Sweden. By the treaty, Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden, thus ending the union initiated in 1380 and further reducing Denmark’s status as a Baltic and European power. By the accession of Norway, Sweden was partially compensated for the loss in 1809 of Finland and the Åland Islands to Russia; but Norway, increasingly opposed to the union with Denmark, reacted to being bartered to Sweden by framing a constitution and resisting Swedish incorporation. By its resolve to resist the Treaty of Kiel with arms, Norway forced Sweden to accept its constitution; the result was a royal union that lasted until 1905. Although Denmark retained the old Norwegian settlements of Greenland, Iceland, and the Faeroe Islands, the loss of Norway had a disruptive effect on its political and economic life.
Parliament of Norway Building

Parliament of Norway Building (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
It is not our abilities that show who we really are. It is our choices.”           Albus Dumbledore
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