In 1778, English explorer and navigator Captain James Cook discovered the present-day Hawaiian Islands, which he named the Sandwich Islands. He would be killed in Hawaii a bit over a year later in a dispute with the natives. Cook set new standards of thoroughness in discovery and seamanship, in navigation, cartography, and the sea care of men, in relations with natives both friendly and hostile, and in the application of science at sea; and he had peacefully changed the map of the world more than any other single man in history.
English: Captain James Cook and four of his men with natives. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
In 1871, the German Empire, forged as a result of diplomacy rather than an outpouring of popular nationalist feeling, was founded in the aftermath of three successful wars by the North German state of Prussia. Within a seven-year period Denmark, the Habsburg monarchy, and France were vanquished in short, decisive conflicts. The empire was forged not as the result of the outpouring of nationalist feeling from the masses but through traditional cabinet diplomacy and agreement by the leaders of the states in the North German Confederation, led by Prussia, with the hereditary rulers of Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Württemberg. Prussia, occupying more than three-fifths of the area of Germany and having approximately three-fifths of the population, remained the dominant force in the nation until the empire’s demise at the end of World War I.
A school history of Germany: from the earliest period to the establishment of the German empire in 1871 (1874) (Photo credit: CircaSassy)
In 1911, the first aircraft landing on a ship’s flight deck was performed by American pilot Eugene Ely on the battleship Pennsylvania in San Francisco Bay.
In 1919, the Paris Peace Conference convened in Versailles, France, to negotiate terms following World War I.
World War II: In 1943, Jewish residents of the Warsaw Ghetto launched their initial armed resistance against German troops. On January 9, 1943,Heinrich Himmler, the chief of the SS (the Nazi paramilitary corps), visited the Warsaw ghetto. He ordered the deportation of another 8,000 Jews. The January deportations caught the Jews by surprise, and ghetto residents thought that the end had come. Making use of the many hiding places that they had created since April, Jews did not report as ordered. The resistance sprang into action. Jewish fighters could strike quickly, then escape across the rooftops. German troops, on the other hand, moved cautiously and would not go down to cellars. When the German deportation effort ended within a few days, Jews interpreted this as a victory. From then on, the resistance dominated the ghetto until the massive German attacks in April that destroyed the Ghetto.
People being deported during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Regards, Roger Mickelson
“No free man shall ever be debarred the use of arms.” Thomas Jefferson