In 632, Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (the prophet Muhammad), founder of the religion of Islam and of the Muslim community, died in Medina. During the 23-year period of his prophethood, Muhammad accomplished what by any account must be considered among the most significant achievements of human history. First, he transmitted both the text of the Qurʾān and his own understanding of the Divine Word, which is the foundation of all later Qurʾānic commentaries. Second, he established a body of Sunnah and Hadith that are, after the Qurʾān, the most important sources for all things Islamic. Third, he laid the foundation for a new religious and spiritual community, taught many disciples, and created the means for the continuity and transmission of the Islamic tradition. Finally, he formed a new society, unifying Arabia in a sociopolitical structure based on the Qurʾān and establishing an empire of faith in the hearts and minds of his followers, who then took his message to the farthest confines of the Earth.
Third Crusade: In 1191, Richard I joined the Crusaders in Acre, having conquered Cyprus on his way there. A month later, after constant battering at the walls by siege engines and after Saladin’s nephew had failed to fight his way into the city, the garrison surrendered in violation of Saladin’s orders. The Muslim leader was shocked by the news but nevertheless ratified the surrender agreement. In exchange for the lives of the Muslim garrison, he agreed to return the True Cross, render 200,000 dinars, and release all his Christian prisoners—still more than 1,000 men.
In 1504, Michelangelo’s statue of David, commissioned in 1501 and considered the prime statement of the Renaissance ideal of perfect humanity, was installed in the cathedral of Florence. Although the sculpture was originally intended for the buttress of the cathedral, the magnificence of the finished work convinced Michelangelo’s contemporaries to install it in a more prominent place, to be determined by a commission formed of artists and prominent citizens. They decided that the David would be installed in front of the entrance of the Palazzo dei Priori (now called Palazzo Vecchio) as a symbol of the Florentine Republic.
In 1867, Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph was crowned king of Hungary.
In 1967, Israeli defense forces attacked the USS Liberty, a US Navy intelligence-gathering ship in the Mediterranean, killing 34 US sailors. Israel later apologized and claimed that the Liberty had been mistakenly identified as an Egyptian war ship.
Vietnam War: In 1972, a photographer captured the image of 9-year-old Phan Thi Kim Phuc as she ran naked and severely burned from the scene of a South Vietnamese napalm attack.
Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare. Sun Tzu, The Art of War