Third Crusade: In 1190, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa) drowned while trying to cross the Saleph River on the way to the Holy Land. Germany developed into a system of territorial states after Barbarossa’s death, while France developed during the time of Philip II Augustus into a centralized monarchial state. Barbarossa had a strong feeling for law and imperial prestige. His steadfast opposition to the popes and to Henry the Lion made him the symbol of German unity.
In 1692, Bridget Bishop was executed by hanging as a witch convicted during the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts. There was a series of investigations and persecutions that caused 19 convicted “witches” to be hanged and many other suspects to be imprisoned in Salem. Stimulated by voodoo tales told by a West Indian slave, Tituba, a few young girls claimed they were possessed by the devil and subsequently accused three Salem women, including Tituba, of witchcraft. As Tituba and other accused persons were pressured and consequently incriminated others in false confessions, public hysteria over the threat of witchcraft mounted throughout Massachusetts.
In 1772, Rhode Islanders in the American colonies boarded and sank the British revenue cutter Gaspee in Narragansett Bay. Headed by a leading merchant, John Brown, eight boatloads of armed, reputable citizens overpowered the crew of the Gaspee, which had run aground in pursuit of a smuggling vessel, disabled her commander, and set fire to the ship. Despite concerted British efforts to bring the culprits to justice, the raiding party was never punished.
American Civil War: In 1864, the Confederate Congress authorized military service for men between the ages of 17 and 70.
American Civil War: Also in 1864, Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest administered a crushing defeat to Federal troops under the command of Union General Samuel D. Sturgis at Brice’s Cross Roads, Mississippi.
World War II: In 1940, Italy declared war against France and Great Britain.
World War II: In 1942 German forces massacred 173 male residents of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, in retaliation for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich.
Arab-Israeli Wars: In 1967, Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United Nations mediated cease-fire.
Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“Build your opponent a golden bridge to retreat across.” Sun Tzu