In 1380, Charles V, who was king of France from 1364 and led the country in a miraculous recovery from the devastation of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War, died.
In 1620, English colonists aboard the Mayflower set sail for America. Chartered by a group of English merchants called the London Adventurers, the Mayflower was prevented by rough seas and storms from reaching the territory that had been granted in Virginia (a region then conceived of as much larger than the present-day state of Virginia, at the time including the Mayflower’s original destination in the area of the Hudson River in what is now New York state).
In 1810, Mexicans were inspired to begin their revolt against Spanish rule by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and his “Grito de Dolores” (Cry of Dolores). Thousands of Indians and mestizos flocked to Hidalgo’s banner of Our Lady of Guadalupe, capturing Guanajuato and other major cities west of Mexico City. Soon Hidalgo was at the gates of the capital, but he hesitated, and the opportunity was lost. His followers melted away. The responsible elements in Mexico were frightened by the prospect of social upheaval. After his defeat at Calderón on January 17, 1811, Hidalgo fled north, hoping to escape into the United States. He was caught, degraded from the priesthood, and shot as a rebel.
In 1893, more than 100,000 settlers swarmed onto a section of land in Oklahoma known as the Cherokee Strip.
In 1970, King Ḥussein of Jordan declared martial law following the hijacking of four international airliners by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
In 1978, Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq was proclaimed president of Pakistan.
In 1982, Israeli-allied Christian Phalange militiamen began the slaughter of 1200-1400 Palestinian men, women, and children in west Beirut’s Sabra and Shatila refugee camps.
In 1994, a federal jury in Anchorage, Alaska, directed Exxon to pay $5 billion in punitive damages for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. The US Supreme Court later reduced that to just over $500 million.
In 1998, the Basque separatist organization Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (“Basque Homeland and Liberty”) announced an indefinite cease-fire after 30 years of terrorist guerrilla attacks in Spain that were blamed for 800 deaths.
Regards, Roger Mickelson
Source material includes Associated Press International and Encyclopædia Britannica.
“In this country, we have no place for hyphenated Americans.” Theodore Roosevelt